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In the late $1960s$, while studying the northern-elephant-seal population along the coasts of  Mexico and California, Burney Le Boeuf and his colleagues couldn’t help but notice that the threat calls of males at some sites sounded different from those of males at other sites$\dots$ That was the first time dialects were documented in a nonhuman mammal$\dots$

All the northern elephant seals that exist today are descendants of the small herd that survived on Isla Guadalupe [after the near extinction of the species in the nineteenth century]. As that tiny population grew, northern elephant seals started to recolonize former breeding locations. It was precisely on the more recently colonized islands where Le Boeuf found that the tempos of the male vocal displays showed stronger differences to the ones from Isla Guadalupe, the founder colony.

In order to test the reliability of these dialects over time, Le Boeuf and other researchers visited Año Nuevo Island in California – the island where males showed the slowest pulse rates in their calls – every winter from $1968$ to $1972$. “What we found is that the pulse rate increased, but it still remained relatively slow compared to the other colonies we had measured in the past” Le Boeuf told me.

At the individual level, the pulse of the calls stayed the same: A male would maintain his vocal signature throughout his lifetime. But the average pulse rate was changing. Immigration could have been responsible for this increase, as in the early $1970s$, $43$ percent of the males on Año Nuevo had come from southern rookeries that had a faster pulse rate. This led Le Boeuf and his collaborator, Lewis Petrinovich, to deduce that the dialects were, perhaps, a result of isolation over time, after the breeding sites had been recolonized. For instance, the first settlers of Año Nuevo could have had, by chance, calls with low pulse rates. At other sites, where the scientists found faster pulse rates, the opposite would have happened – seals with faster rates would have happened to arrive first.

As the population continued to expand and the islands kept on receiving immigrants from  the original population, the calls in all locations would have eventually regressed to the average pulse rate of the founder colony. In the decades that followed, scientists noticed that the geographical variations reported in $1969$ were not obvious anymore$\dots$ In the early $2010s$, while studying northern elephant seals on Año Nuevo Island, [researcher Caroline] Casey noticed, too, that what Le Boeuf had heard decades ago was not what she heard now$\dots$ By performing more sophisticated statistical analyses on both sets of data, [Casey and Le Boeuf] confirmed that dialects existed back then but had vanished. Yet there are other differences between the males from the late $1960s$ and their great-great-grandsons: Modern males exhibit more individual diversity, and their calls are more complex. While $50$ years ago the drumming pattern was quite simple and the dialects denoted just a change in tempo, Casey explained, the calls recorded today have more complex structures, sometimes featuring doublets or triplets$\dots$

 All of the following can be inferred from Le Boeouf's study as described is the passage $\text{EXPECT}$ that:

  1. male northern elephant seals might not have exhibited dialects had they not become nearly extinct in the nineteenth century.
  2. the average call pulse rate of male northern elephant seals at Año Nuevo Island increased from the  early $1970s$ till the disappearance of dialects
  3. the influx of new northern elephant seals into Año Nuevo Island would have soon made the call  pulse rate of its male seals exceed that of those at Isla Guadalupe
  4. changes in population and migration had no effect on the call pulse rate of individual male northern elephant seals.
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