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The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential$\text{(I.Q.);}$ this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper$-$and$-$pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.

  1. Biologists have questioned the long$-$standing view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the attempts to estimate its heritability.
  2. Biologists have started questioning psychologists’ view of ‘intelligence’ as a measurable immutable characteristic of an individual.
  3. Biologists have questioned the view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the ways in which what is inherited.
  4. Biologists have criticised that conventional wisdom that individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential.
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