Answer the questions below on the basis of the following passage. When views can freely flourish in the marketplace of ideas, individuals are afforded the advantage of deciding what notions and concepts to question, support or reject. On June $8, 1789$, James Madison introduced in the House of Representatives an amendment to the Constitution:- "The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable." This commitment to a free press is a principle Americans hold firmly, because they view it as a necessary ingredient for a properly functioning political process and a critical component of a free society. Yet, since the time of America‘s founding, the politicized nature of the press has not fundamentally changed. While conservatives and liberals alike claim that today‘s mainstream media is biased, opinionated, and devoid of objectivity and balanced analysis, American newspapers at the time of this nation‘s birth were all partisan, believing that their responsibility was not to report news, but to convey, without apology, a particular political position. Perhaps the high point of partisan newspapers was in New York during the 1920‘s, when the city had over a dozen daily papers, each geared toward a particular ethnic and political niche; people selected the paper that made the most sense of the world to them. Despite the naysayers who warn that the lack of objectivity and fair-mindedness is corrosive to society, partisan journalism can be good journalism. It produces plenty of excellent reporting and analysis and is the norm in many nations. Two centuries ago, newspapers subsidized by Andrew Jackson's Democrats and Henry Clay's Whigs were dependable supporters of their parties. Today‘s newspapers claim that they too are only giving their readership what it wants. Legally, the Supreme Court has tried since $1919$ to clarify how free the press is. Over time, older laws that allowed publications to be punished for libel, obscenity, sedition, and publishing inflammatory material have given way to more expansive rights to publish. The First Amendment protections offered to journalists have evolved to a broader interpretation of freedom of the press. During the $1960‘s$ and $1970‘s$, journalists exposed the government‘s mismanagement of the Vietnam War, and their investigative reporting eventually brought about the resignation of President Nixon. By the end of the twentieth century, the Constitution‘s protections were broadly held to cover the content of all papers, from the highly regarded New York Times to tabloids such as The National Enquirer.
All of the following are examples of limitations the courts have placed on freedom of the press, EXCEPT
- Articles deemed maliciously defamatory of individuals
- Articles viewed as offensive to society‘s views of decency
- Articles that comment negatively on a political affiliation
- Articles clearly dangerous to national security