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Mode of transportation affects the travel experience and thus can produce new types of travel writing and perhaps even new “identities.” Modes of transportation determine the types and duration of social encounters; affect the organization and passage of space and time; $\dots$ and also affect perception and knowledge – how and what the traveler comes to know and write about. The completion of the first $\text{U.S.}$ transcontinental highway during the $1920 \text{s} \dots$ for example, inaugurated a new genre of travel literature about the United States – the automotive or road narrative. Such narratives highlight the experiences of mostly male protagonists “discovering themselves” on their journeys, emphasizing the independence of road travel and the value of rural folk traditions.

Travel writing’s relationship to empire building – as a type of “colonialist discourse” – has drawn the most attention from academicians. Close connections have been observed between European (and American) political, economic, and administrative goals for the colonies and their manifestations in the cultural practice of writing travel books. Travel writers’ descriptions of foreign places have been analysed as attempts to validate, promote, or challenge the ideologies and practices of colonial or imperial domination and expansion. Mary Louise Pratt’s study of the genres and conventions of $18 \text{th} –$ and $19 \text{th} – \text{century}$ exploration narratives about South America and Africa (e.g., the “monarch of all I survey” trope) offered ways of thinking about travel writing as embedded within relations of power between metropole and periphery, as did Edward Said’s theories of representation and cultural imperialism. Particularly Said’s book, Orientalism, helped scholars understand ways in which representations of people in travel texts were intimately bound up with notions of self, in this case, that the Occident defined itself through essentialist, ethnocentric, and racist representations of the Orient. Said’s work became a model for demonstrating cultural forms of imperialism in travel texts, showing how the political, economic, or administrative fact of dominance relies on legitimating discourses such as those articulated through travel writing$\dots$

Feminist geographers’ studies of travel writing challenge the masculinist history of geography by who and what are relevant subjects of geographic study and, indeed, what counts as geographic knowledge itself. Such questions are worked through ideological constructs that posit men as explorers and women as travelers – or, conversely, men as travelers and women as tied to the home. Studies of Victorian women who were professional travel writers, tourists, wives of colonial administrators, and other (mostly) elite women who wrote narratives about their experiences abroad during the $19 \text{th}$ century have been particularly revealing. From a “liberal” feminist perspective, travel presented one means toward female liberation for middle – and upper–class Victorian women. Many studies from the $1970 \text{s}$ onward demonstrated the ways in which women’s gendered identities were negotiated differently “at home” than they were “away,” thereby showing women’s self–development through travel. The more recent poststructural turn in studies of Victorian travel writing has focused attention on women’s diverse and fragmented identities as they narrated their travel experiences, emphasizing women’s sense of themselves as women in new locations, but only as they worked through their ties to nation, class, whiteness, and colonial and imperial power structures.

According to the passage, Said’s book, “Orientalism”:

1. illustrated how narrow minded and racist westerners were.
2. demonstrated how cultural imperialism was used to justify colonial domination.
3. explained the difference between the representation of people and the actual fact.
4. argued that cultural imperialism was more significant than colonial domination.