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The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Brown et al. $(2001)$ suggest that ‘metabolic theory may provide a conceptual foundation for much of ecology just as genetic theory provides a foundation for much of evolutionary biology’. One of the successes of genetic theory is the diversity of theoretical approaches and models that have been developed and applied. A Web of Science ($\text{v.} 5.9.$ Thomson Reuters) search on genetic* + theor* + evol* identifies more than $12000$ publications between $2005$ and $2012.$ Considering only the $10$ most-cited papers within this $12000$ publication set, genetic theory can be seen to focus on genome dynamics, phylogenetic inference, game theory and the regulation of gene expression. There is no one fundamental genetic equation, but rather a wide array of genetic models, ranging from simple to complex, with differing inputs and outputs, and divergent areas of application, loosely connected to each other through the shared conceptual foundation of heritable variation.

  1. Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and applications and Metabolic theory must have the same in the field of ecology.
  2. Genetic theory has evolved to spawn a wide range of theoretical models and applications but Metabolic theory need not evolve in a similar manner in the field of ecology.
  3. Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and application and is foundational to evolutionary biology and Metabolic theory has the potential to do the same for ecology.
  4. Genetic theory provides an example of how a range of theoretical approaches and applications can make a theory successful.
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