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The invention of "swarm intelligence" has been possible because of ________ .

  1. Phenology
  2. Phrenology
  3. Bionomics
  4. Bionics
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'Swarm' means a large group of flying insects.

And 'Swarm Intelligence' or Swarm Intelligence systems consist typically of a population of simple agents or boids interacting locally with one another and with their environment. The inspiration often comes from nature, especially biological systems.

Boids is an artificial life program,The name "boid" corresponds to a shortened version of "bird-oid object", which refers to a bird-like object.

As,

Bionics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.

So, the ans. is option D) .

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Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors.

Phrenology is primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.

Bionomics is the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment.

Bionics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.

So, the correct answer is $(D).$
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