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The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage. Language is an autapomorphy found only in our lineage, and not shared with other branches of our group such as primates. We also have no definitive evidence that any species other than Homo sapiens ever had language. However, it must be noted straightaway that ‘language’ is not a monolithic entity, but rather a complex bundle of traits that must have evolved over a significant time frame.... Moreover, language crucially draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory: the language faculty as a whole comprises more than just the uniquely linguistic features.

  1. Language, a derived trait found only in humans, has evolved over time and involves memory
  2. Language evolved with linguistic features building on features of cognition such as memory
  3. Language is not a single, uniform entity but the end result of a long and complex process of linguistic evolution
  4. Language is a distinctively human feature as there is no evidence of the existence of language in any other species
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Option B is the right answer.

The given passage revolves around the neuro-linguistics of our species.

The key sentence here is that language and memory share a cognitive connection as mentioned here: “...language crucially draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory...”

Option B is the only summary of the passage that manages to encapsulate “memory” in it, and is therefore the right answer.

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Language is not a single, uniform entity but the end result of a long and complex process of linguistic evolution

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