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The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Social movement organizations often struggle to mobilize supporters from allied movements in their efforts to achieve critical mass. Organisations with hybrid identities-those whose organizational identities span the boundaries of two or more social movements,issues,or identities-are vital to mobilizing these constituencies. Studies of the post-$9/11$ U.S. antiwar movement show that individuals with past involvement in non-anti-war movements are more likely to join hybrid organizations than are individuals without involvement in non-anti-war movements. In addition, they show that organizations with hybrid identies occupy relatively more central positions in inter-organizational contact networks within the antiwar movement and thus recruit significantly more participants in demonstrations than do nonhybrid organizations.

  1. Post $9/11$ studies show that people who are involved in non anti-war movements are likely to join hybrid organizations.
  2.  Movements that work towards social change often find it difficult to mobilize a critical mass of supporters.
  3. Hybrid organizations attract individuals that are deeply involved in anti-war movements.
  4. Organizations with hybrid identities are able to mobilize individuals with different points of view.
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