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Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be. In fact, they got their start trading in northern European markets researchers suggest.

Combs carved from animal antler, as well as comb manufacturing waste and raw antler material has turned up at three archaeological sites in Denmark, including a medieval marketplace in the city of Ribe.

A team of researchers from Denmark and the U.K. hoped to identify the species of animal to which the antlers once belonged by analyzing collagen proteins in the samples and comparing them across the animal kingdom, Laura Geggel reports for Livescience. Somewhat surprisingly, molecular analysis of the artifacts revealed that some combs and other material had been carved from reindeer antlers... Given that reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) don't live in Denmark, the researchers posit that it arrived on Viking ships from Norway. Antler craftsmanship, in the form of decorative combs, was part of Viking culture. Such combs served as symbols of good health, Geggel writes. The fact that the animals shed their antlers also made them easy, to collect from the large herds that inhabited Norway.

Since the artifacts were found in marketplace areas at each site it's more likely that the Norsemen came to trade rather than pillage. Most of the artifacts also date to the $780$s, but some are as old as $725$. That predates the beginning of Viking raids on Great Britain by about $70$ years (Traditionally, the so-called "Viking Age" began with these raids in $793$ and ended with the Norman conquest of Great Britain in $1066$.) Archaeologists had suspected that the Vikings had experience with long maritime voyages [that] might have preceded their raiding days. Beyond Norway, these combs would have been a popular industry in Scandinavia as well. It's possible that the antler combs represent a larger trade network, where the Norsemen supplied raw material to craftsmen in Denmark and elsewhere.

The evidence – "Most of the artifacts also date to the $780$s, but some are as old as $725$” – has been used in the passage to argue that

1. the beginning date of the Viking Age should be changed from $793$ to $725$.
2. the Viking raids started as early as $725$.
3. some of the antler artifacts found in Denmark and Great Britain could have come from Scandinavia.
4. the Vikings’ relations with Europe pre-dates the Viking raids.

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