The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the best answer.
If translated into English, most of the ways economists talk among themselves would sound plausible enough to poets, journalists, business people, and other thoughtful though noneconomical folk. Like serious talk anywhere-among boat designers and baseball fans, say-the talk is hard to follow when one has not made a habit of listening to it for a while. The culture of the conversation makes the words arcane. But the people in the unfamiliar conversation are not Martians. Underneath it all (the economist’s favorite phrase) conversational habits are familiar. Economics uses mathematical models and statistical tests and market arguments, all of which look alien to the literary eye. But looked at closely they are not so alien. They may be seen as figures of speech – metaphors, analogies, and appeals to authority.
Figures of speech are not mere fills. They think for us. Someone who thinks of a market as an “invisible hand” and the organization of work as a “production function” and his coefficients as being “significant,” as an economist does, is giving the language a lot of responsibility. It seems a good idea to look hard at his language.
If the economic conversation were found to depend a lot on its verbal forms, this would not mean that economics would not be a science, or just a matter of opinion, or some sort of confidence game. Good poets, though not scientists, are serious thinkers about symbols; good historians, though not scientists, are serious thinkers about data. Good scientists also use language, What is more (though it remains to be shown) they use the cunning of language, without particularly meaning to. The language used is a social object, and using language is a social act. It required cunning (or, if you prefer, consideration), attention to the other minds present when one speaks.
The paying of attention to one’s audience is called “rhetoric,” a word that I later exercise hard. One uses rhetoric, of course, to warn of a fire in a theatre or to arouse the xenophobia of the electorate. This sort of yelling is the vulgar meaning of the word, like the president’s “heated rhetoric” in a press conference or the “mere rhetoric” to which our enemies stoop. Since the Greek flame was lit, though, the word has been used also in a broader and more amiable sense, to mean the study of all the ways of accomplishing things which language is inciting a mob to lynch the accuses, to be sure, but also persuading readers of a novel that is characters breathe, or bringing scholars to accept the better argument and reject the worse.
The question is whether the scholar-who usually fancies himself an announcer of “results” or a stater of “conclusions” free of rhetoric – speaks rhetorically. Does he try to persuade? it would seem so. Language, I just said, is not a solitary accomplishment. The scholar does not speak into the void, or to himself. He speaks to a community of voices. he desires to be heeded, praised, published, imitated, honored, en-nobeled. These are the desires. The devices of language are the means.
Rhetoric is the proportioning of means to desires in speech. Rhetoric is an economics of language, the study of how scarce means are allocated to the insatiable desires of people to be heard. It seems on the face of it, a reasonable hypothesis that economists are like other people in being talkers, who desire listeners that they go to the library or the laboratory as much as when they go to the office on the polls. The purpose here is to see if that is true, and to see if it is useful to study the rhetoric of economic scholarship.
The subject is scholarship. It is not the economy, or the adequacy of economic theory as a description of the economy, or even mainly the economist’s role in the economy. The subject is the conversation economists have among themselves, for purposes of persuading each other that the interest elastically of demand investment is zero or that the money supply is controlled by the Federal Reserve.
Unfortunately, though, the conclusions are more than academic interest. The conversation of classicists or of astronomers rarely affect the lives of other people. Those of economists do so on a large scale. A well known joke describes a may Day through Red Square with the usual mass of soldiers, guided missiles, rocket launchers. At last rank upon rank of people in gray business suits. A bystander asks, “who are those?” “Aha!” comes the reply, “those are economists: you have no idea what damage they can do!” Their conversations do it.
In the light of the definition of rhetoric given in the passage, which of the following will have the least element of rhetoric?
- An election speech
- An advertisement jingle
- Dialogues of a play
- Commands given by army officers